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Here is a site about waters of the world. Ever considered avoiding bottlled water altogether? Here is some information on city water supplies in the USA from the EWG. The city water from Honolulu and Minneapolis tastes unusually sweet and delicious. Both cities are listed among the top ten (10) water supplies.

Studies at a leading medical university may have uncovered how Penta works to help its drinkers feel and be their best. A team led by Professor Jean Krutmann, M.D., published a study which revealed that Penta may enhance antioxidant activity and help protect against the effects of skin aging. Dr. Krutmann is a Professor of Dermatology and Environmental Medicine and Director of Institute fur Umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF), (Institute for Environmental Medical Research) at the Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf gGmbH, Germany.
Click here to download the Full Abstract on Dr. Krutmann’s Study

Penta® Purified drinking water
Bill and Michael Holloway, the inventors of Penta, have always been obsessed with water purity. Several years ago they were tinkering with novel purification methods when one day they left an experimental process running while heading out for lunch. Upon their return, they discovered something phenomenal—the water had taken on some amazing and unique characteristics unlike anything they had ever seen. Bill, who suffers from long-term health problems, began drinking the water and couldn’t believe the difference it made. Convinced that Penta® could help others, Bill, his wife G. R. and Michael perfected Penta® and began selling it. Since then, hundreds of thousands of people have also discovered Penta® and its unique hydration qualities. After it is purified, Penta is put through the patented Penta® process, which restructures the H2O clusters to a small, stable state ultimately giving Penta® its superior hydrating properties. Lastly, Penta is chilled, oxygenated, inspected one last time, packaged and then shipped for consumers to enjoy call 800 531-5088

Electrolyte enhanced vapor distilled water. (99 cents at Healthy Life Markets / Drug Emporiums throughout WV – USA). Ingredients: vapor distilled water + electrolytes (calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and potassium bicarbonate). Before Gatorade there was Kool-aid; the next generation of sports drink is Smart Water, and sister product Vitamin Water. Made by a US bottler called "Glaceau, "Smart Water begins as an artesian spring in Northern Connecticut. After the water is distilled,a balance of Magnesium, Potassium, and Calcium is introduced, adding electrolytes. The attractive bullet shaped plastic container with the traditional sport cap reinforces the product's image. Smart Water is a product for anyone who wants to look and drink their best during tennis, golf,workouts at the gym,or in the school lunch room.
Essentia® purified drinking water enhanced by ionic separation electrolytes added for taste. A proprietary microprocess to purify and transform water’s natural properties, increase alkalinity and promote smooth taste. Increased alkalinity to 9.5 assisting in balancing our acidic dietary intake. Infused pure electrolytes formulated physiologically for intracellular hydration. Ingredients: Purified water (3 ppm TDS by reverse osmosis) enhanced with electrolytes derived from sodium bicarbonate, magnesium sulfate, dipotassium phosphate and calcium chloride . . . then ozonated. Bottled for: Essential Water Phoenix AZ 85018  phone 602.912 9500 
To maintain good health, your body constantly works to keep a slightly alkaline pH. This often requires tapping into alkaline reserves found in your bones to offset the highly acidic average American diet. When your body is acidic, it becomes vulnerable to serious health problems. eVamor's alkaline minerals help support neutralizing acid, safely and effectively. It's a great way to have a balanced, healthy pH.

Oxy-Water tastes best, according to one website. It is clear, smooth, distilled water with a refreshing boost of extra Oxygen. It is the perfect way to replenish the body's supply of much-needed water and oxygen - perfect for the athlete looking for a competitive edge or anyone who wants to be truly refreshed! Oxygenized Water is the term for Oxywater North America's proprietary method of infusing distilled water with additional oxygen

Oxy-water ® recommended by No fluoride or chlorine Distilled water and medical grade oxygen The air you drink oxy-water Steam distilled non carbonated. Product of canada
Oxy-Water N.A., Inc.
PO Box 298040
Columbus, OH 43229
1 877 699 9287

Trinity ®
TRINITY source water flows out of the ground naturally hot (138 deg. F) from more than 2.2 miles deep, where it approaches temperatures of over 300 deg. F. For over 16,000 years, the water interacts constantly with the granite and crystal-lined faults deep within the protective Idaho Batholith. Over eons, this interactive dance between pristine water and crystalline rock causes the natural mineral levels of the water to rise and fall. Trinity ® Natural Mineral supplement – NMS original – Natural Mineral Supplement. Trinity is life force – natural and pristine, with efficacious minerals and a high pH. Emerging after 16,000 years from a 2.2 mile deep, crystal-lined granite source, Trinity NMS>The minerals in Trinity NMS are naturally occurring. We add nothing. We recommend monitoring daily nutrient intake, including the minerals in Trinity NMS. Adults and children over 11: Total consumption should not exceed one liter per day. Pregnant and lactating women: Total consumption should not exceed 16 oz. Per day. Redox Potential –50 to +50 mv. PH 9.6. In 8oz sodium 15 mg silica 18.75 bicarbonate 10 mg fluoride 0.9mg. 100% natural geothermal spring water. Trinity Springs Ltd. HQ 1 800 390 5693  -  PO Box 8810, Ketchum ID 83340
Fiji Water

Look at it this way. FIJI Water is drawn from an artesian aquifer, located at the very edge of a primitive rainforest, hundreds of miles away from the nearest continent. That very distance is part of what makes us so much more pure and so much healthier than other bottled waters.

Hawaiian Springs Water
Hawaiian Springs natural artesian water comes from the extraordinary Big Island of Hawaii.... known for it's abundant beauty, snow-capped mountains and pristine natural water. Our source is located on Mauna Loa, in the District of Puna, which in ancient Hawaiian means, “Spring Water”. This unusually pure water, which nature constantly replenishes, begins as rain and snow which then naturally filters through the majestic mountain slopes as it forms an underground aquifer. Hawaiian Springs is bottled from its protected source, providing you with naturally pure water from paradise. Taste the naturally pure difference of Hawaiian Springs. , Hawaii by Hawaiian Natural Water Co. 96749 USA. 1 800 733 1088.

PLASTIC has been considered unsafe for children and pregnant women when associated with heated foods. Try avoiding plastic contact with any food items. Plastic is a strong estrogen disruptor. It is better to keep kidneys well hydrated rather than to avoid drinking because of the plastic container. Try to keep water and food in glass or stainless steel containers. To read a recent article on BISPHENOL A click here. Bisphenol A BPA has been widely used in cosmetics and foods. However bishenol A is an estrogen disruptor. Bisphenol A was investigated in the 1930s during the search for estrogen mimics. From this study the synthetic compound diethylstilbestrol was shown to be a better competitor with estrogen. Bisphenol A, can activate estrogen receptors, leading to similar physiological effects as the body's own estrogens The first evidence of the estrogenicity of bisphenol A came from experiments in the 1930s in which it was fed to rats with their ovaries removed. Liver cysts have estrogen receptors. Some hormone disrupting effects in studies on animals and human cancer cells have been shown to occur at levels as low as 2–5 ppb (parts per billion). It has been claimed that these effects lead to health problems such as, in men, lowered sperm count and infertile sperm. Recent studies have confirmed that bisphenol A exposure during development has carcinogenic effects and produce precursors of breast cancer. From Wikipedia

GLASS BOTTLES PREFERRED One individual wrote in about possibly drinking water from plastic containers. Plastic is an estrogen disruptors and as such can cause a growth of liver cysts and activate the second hit for PKD.
Joe Wrote
If you must carry water in plastic -- make sure it is a #7 plastic. Look on the bottom of the container for the little recycle symbol and it will have a # in the center of it. Most bottled water is in a #1. Even the Dasani blue bottle is #1. Don't refill bottled water bottles with chlorinated tap water -- it will leach (more) chemicals into the water. #7s are available in health food stores in all sizes and personal sized Nalgene bottles (made from Lexan) are available at REI and other top sporting goods stores.
PKDiet's Answer:
Your suggestions are very good about not refilling plastic bottles with chlorinated tap water, as this will leach more chemicals into the drinking water. However there is an article that states:
Nalgenes are made with a polycarbonate plastic called Lexan. BPA is used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic, and it has been shown to have many harmful health effects, even at low concentrations. Due to the bioaccumulative effects of the chemicals, extended exposure to small quantities of a variety of different chemicals can have adverse health effects.?
To read more.

SOL´E Mineral water, spring water, artesian well water, natural spring water that is filtered through volcanic rock, filtered water, and in a pinch, tap water that has been left out over night to dissipate the chlorine are all good sources of drinking waters.

A friend who does not have PKD, was told his cholesterol was so high he needed to begin cholesterol lowering medication at once. He did not take the medication but changed his healthy lifestyle by increasing his water intake to 3 liters a day, drinking solé with crystals added to the water. He was dreading the time for his yearly physical examination. When he returned home following his doctor visit he received a call to return back to the office. The doctor greeted him with great joy and asked what had he done over the past year? He had succeeded in significantly lowering his cholesterol to low normal. The physician was amazed. To read more about solé, click here.

LEAD IN PIPES If you are unable to obtain bottled water or filtered water, then there are a few things to be done with tap water to make it more drinkable. Leave it overnight to dissipate any residual chlorine. Water treated this way is also helpful in baking yeast free breads. Use water from the cold tap to cook and drink. Allow the water to run two minutes to help dissipate any lead in the pipes. The lead comes from chrome fittings, brass fittings, and in older homes lead pipes. Solder used on the pipes was also made from lead. Lead leaches more easily in hot water than in cold. Leave the water to sit out overnight to help dissipate the chlorine. Students conducted a study to determine if anything could lower the lead content of water.
The students had three hypotheses:
Running water before using it in the morning would reduce the lead content
Running water through a filter would reduce the lead content
Bottled water would have a low lead content.

As a result of their experiment, the students discovered:
Filters did not do what they are purported to do;
The water was safe to drink at the three schools, which are in the 46807 zip code area;
Bottled water did have a low lead content;
And running the water for two minutes before drinking it significantly reduced the lead content.”
How does lead get into the drinking water?

“Through the early 1900's it was common in some areas of the country to use lead pipes for interior plumbing. Lead piping was also used for the service connections used to join residences to public water supplies. Lead piping is most likely to be found in homes built before 1930. Copper piping replaced lead piping, but lead-based solder was used to join copper piping. It is likely lead-based solder was used in any home built before 1988.

Today, brass materials are used in nearly 100 percent of all residential, commercial, and municipal water distribution systems. Many household faucets, plumbing fittings, check valves and well pumps are manufactured with brass parts. While brass contains some lead to make casting easier and the machining process more efficient, the lead content of brass plumbing components is now restricted to 8 percent. Even at this low level, however, lead can be leached from new brass faucets and fittings. Eventually, if the water is not corrosive, hard water minerals deposit on the interior of plumbing. These deposits form a calcium carbonate lining inside pipes and fittings which protects against lead contamination. It may take up to five years for an effective calcium carbonate lining to form. Softening naturally hard water with an ion exchange water-softening unit can either prevent or dissolve the calcium carbonate scale, eliminating its possible protective effect.

Some private wells may have submersible pumps containing brass or bronze capable of leaching lead. Some well screens also may contain lead or were installed with a "lead packing collar". Potential lead contamination also exists if the well is a driven, sandpoint well and has been "shot" to clear the screen. Lead shot was sometimes poured into a well to keep out sand. In other wells, lead wool was used. None of these practices are recommended and driven; sandpoint wells are not allowable under Nebraska well construction regulations.
Older water coolers with lead-lined tanks are another possible source of lead in drinking water. The Lead Contamination Control Act of 1988 required the repair or recall of lead-lined tanks and prohibited manufacturing and sale of such coolers. As with any repair or recall notice, it is possible that less than 100 percent compliance was achieved and coolers with lead-lined tanks could remain in use.”

There are simple steps you can take if testing shows that flushing the tap reduces lead levels. You may want to use these if you think lead may be present in your plumbing system.
Flush the water taps or faucets. Avoid drinking water that has been sitting in the plumbing lines for more than six hours. The longer that water sits in pipes, the greater the exposure to lead and possible contamination. Before using water for drinking or cooking, run the cold water faucet for two to three minutes, until you can feel that water has become as cold as it can get. You should do this for each drinking water faucet. Allowing the water to run an extra 15 seconds after it feels cold should flush the service connector as well.
Use only cold water for cooking and drinking. Hot water dissolves lead more quickly than cold water. Using cold water is especially important if you are preparing baby formula. Heat the water you need for formula on the range or in the microwave oven.
Use bottled or distilled water. This water can be used for drinking and cooking if homes have lead pipes or if flushing the taps does not lower lead levels.

Other Treatment Methods
Treatments for removing high or persistent lead levels in water entering a household are reverse osmosis (RO) or distillation. The RO method forces water under pressure through a membrane formulated to reject certain substances. The simplest RO systems consist of a pump, the membrane, and a flow regulator. A water filter can be used with an RO system when the water is excessively hard.
Distillation units remove lead by boiling the water then collecting and condensing the steam. Many impurities are removed and nearly contaminate-free water is produced. Most home distillation units have small capacities, from one quart to one-half gallon of water per hour. Water with a high mineral content or suspended solids rapidly fouls the system, and the drinking water produced tastes rather bland. Distillation removes approximately 99 percent of the lead from water.
If the problem is determined to be caused by corrosion of pipes or other plumbing components, treating the water to increase the pH can generally halt the corrosion. This can be accomplished by installing a neutralizing filter in the water line before it enters the house or installing a solution injector at the well to inject soda ash. Soda ash injection will result in the precipitation of sodium bicarbonate and should be installed ahead of a filter to remove the pre- cipitant. In order to prevent corrosion it is usually desirable to increase the pH to 6.5, 7.0, 7.5.
Another treatment for corrosive water is to inject polyphosphates or sodium silicates. These compounds do not affect the pH, but they create a thin protective coating on the inside of pipes and other plumbing components which prevents the water from attaching the metal and leaching lead and other contaminants. Activated carbon filters, sand filters, and cartridge or microfilter filters are not recommended or designed to reduce lead, according to the EPA. When lead is a problem, water softeners should not be connected to pipes leading to drinking water taps.
Alternative Plumbing Materials To reduce lead contamination of drinking water, alternative products must be used in plumbing systems of new homes. Tin-antimony (95/5 percent) or tin-silver (96/4 percent) solders are considered better quality but more expensive than tin-lead 50/50 percent solder. Both alternative materials provide a better seal than tin-lead solder, although the higher melting points of silver and antimony make these solders slightly more difficult to use. Tin-antimony solder is not recommended on brass fittings since brass becomes brittle. A study of tin-antimony and tin-silver solders shows both metals are more resistant to corrosive-water leaching than lead solder.

LOW SODIUM WATER For a review of waters of the world click here. I have been unable to find a bottle of mineral water with a zero sodium. content. Mineral bottled waters as Evian, Volvic, Buxton, etc all contain some sodium. The Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines sodium-free water as having less than 5 milligrams of sodium per 8 oz. serving. Glacier technicians test for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and not for any specific element such as sodium. Our technicians are trained to never allow the TDS level to exceed 60 parts per million (ppm) of TDS. Maintaining Glacier’s water below 60 ppm creates a sodium-free water is  well below the recommended FDA levels.
Here is an article about alkaline waters that lists their ingredients. One reason I do not drink Desani water is because of its added sodium. Due to my massive liver cysts I try avoid xenoestrogens and try to drink bottled waters that are bottled in glass containers. Or else I pour the water into a glass container. 8 ounces of the following waters (bottled in glass) have the following milligrams of sodium:

PERRIER ™ = 10 mg
S. PELLIGRO™ = 10 mg

Bottled in Plastic:
GLACIER WATER™ = 5mg (or less - said to be alkaline with a pH of 7
 sodium free)
Calcium 28
Bicarbonates  357
Magnesium 24
Sulfates  10
Silica  14
Chlorides  4
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last updated: Saturday, September 7, 2013 7:42 AM



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